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An Overview On Electrolyte Imbalance

Everything you need to know about Electrolyte Imbalance

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Electrolyte are naturally occurring positively and negatively charged molecules called ionsThe blood Electrolyte include; Sodium, Potassium, Chloride, Calcium, Bicarbonate, Magnesium, Phosphate. Electrolyte imbalance is an abnormality in the concentration of electrolyte in the body

CAUSES OF ELECTROLYTE IMBALANCE

  • Loss of Body Fluid
  • Malabsorption
  • Medications
  • Inadequate diet
  • Age
  • Kidney disease
  • Hormonal or Endocrine disorders
  • Tumor lysis syndrome

SYMPTOMS OF ELECTROLYTE IMBALANCE

  • Fatigue
  • Nausea
  • Muscle weakness
  • Headaches
  • Abdominal Cramping
  • Vomiting
  • Numbness
  • Convulsion
  • Irritability
  • Diarrhea

 

TYPES OF ELECTROLYTE IMBALANCE

  1. Calcium ; Hypercalcemia and Hypocalcemia
  2. Chloride ; Hyperchloremia and Hypocholoremia
  3. Potassium ; Hyperkalemia and Hypokalemia
  4. Sodium ; Hypernatremia and Hyponatremia
  5. Biocarbonate
  6. Magnesium ; Hypermagnesemia and Hypomagnesemia
  7. Phospahate ; Hyperphosphatemia and Hypophosphatemia

CALCIUM

Calcium is vital for stabilising blood pressure and control muscle contraction

Conditions of Calicum Imbalances
  1. Hypercalcemia
  2. Hypocalcemia

CHLORIDE

For maintaining proper balance of body fluids

Conditions of chloride imbalances
  1. Hyperchloremia
  2. Hypochloremia  

SODIUM

To maintain fluid balance and normal body function

Conditions of sodium imbalances
  1. Hypernatremia
  2. Hyponatremia

Potassium

For regulating Heart Function

Conditions of potassium imbalance
  1. Hyperkalemia
  2. Hypokalemia

Magnesium

For relaxtion of the smooth muscle that surrounds the bronchial tubes in the lungs, skeletal muscle contraction

Conditions of magnesium imbalances
  1. Hypermagnesemia
  2. Hypomagnemial

BICARBONATE

It keeps the acid – base status of the body in balance.  When the body malfunctions bicarbonate is needed to try to compensate for extra acid production

Risk factors of Electrolyte Imbalance

Anyone can develop electrolyte imbalance, certain people can be more at risk due to medical history.

  • Alcohol use disorder
  • Cirrhosis
  • Congestive Heart failure
  • Kidney disease
  • Eating disorder e.g Anorexia
  • Truama e.g Burns and broken bones
  • Thyroid and parathyroid disorders
  • Adrenal gland disorders

 

 

Measurement of Electrolytes

Electrolyte are measured by a process known as potentiometry. The method measures the voltage that develops between the inner and outer  Surfaces of an ion selective electrode .

LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS OF ELECTROLYTE IMBALANCE

Electrolyte Panel or Lyte Blood Test for screening imbalances of electrolyte in the blood and measure acid – balance and kidney function.

NORMAL ADULT VALUES

  • Calcium (8.1. – 10.4)mg/dl
  • Magnesium (1.5 – 2.5)mg/dl
  • Chloride (96 – 110)mmol/l
  • Sodium (135 -145)mmol/l
  • Bicarbonate (20 -30)mmol/l
  • Potasssium (3.5 – 5.3)mmol/l

The values defers depending on the laboratory

 

PREVENTION OF ELECTROLYTE IMBALANCE

  1. Diets
  2. Stay hydrated if you are experiencing prolonged vomiting, diarrhea or sweating
  3. If caused by medications, meet your doctor to adjust your drugs

 

TREATMENT OF ELECTROLYTE IMBALANCE

  • Supplement
  • Hemodialysis
  • Medications
  • Electrolyte Replacement Therapy
  • Oral Hydration Therapy

CONCLUSION

Electrolyte are vital part of a person’s chemical makeup. Electrolyte imbalance is an abnormality in the concentration of electrolyte in the body and can affect regular function. Symptoms like headache, fatigue, muscle weakness, vomiting could arise due to malaborption, kidney disease, loss of body fluids leading to low or higher level of electrolyte. Well managed diets, rehydration could help preserve electrolyte.

 

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